6 things you need to know about picky eating
Experts at University of Derby explain the psychology of your child's eating behaviour and how to tell the difference between pickiness and a food phobia
Image: David P. Hall
New research from the University of Derby by Dr Frances Maratos, reader in Emotional Science, and Jayne Trovati, a PhD student in the area, explain why your child may not be eating their greens.
A fussy eater or food neophobia?
'Food neophobia is specific to new foods, and literally speaking, a fear of eating novel, unknown food.'
'Picky eating may involve rejection based on other characteristics of food, such as texture, flavour, colour or combination of ingredients, and relates to foods previously consumed, as well as novel foods.'
'Food neophobia tends to be related to anxiety, whereas picky eating is much more strongly related to environmental factors such as familial mealtime practices and consumption expectations.'
Why are some children picky eaters and others aren’t?
'Individual differences have been found to play a role in eating behaviour, which may explain why some children are picky eaters and others are not – for example, openness to trying new things and tendency to be anxious. If your child suffers from anxiety they are more likely to be a picky eater.'
'A study in 2007 by psychologists Cook, Haworth and Wardle suggested that food neophobia is highly heritable. In a study of 5,000 8-11 year old twins, they found that if one twin had food neophobia, the chances of the further twin sharing this eating behaviour was around 75%.'
'Eating behaviour may also differ with each situation. For example, how children eat at home may differ to how they eat when they are at school. The same applies for children eating at restaurants or at parties. Parents may be unaware of these habits.'
'It’s not uncommon to find your child lives up to the expected eating requirements at nursery but doesn’t at home. It may be that your child knows they can get away with certain eating behaviours in one situation, but not in another.'
'Certain behavioural traits, such as those associated with the need for ‘ordering’ or ‘sameness’, as experienced by children with Autism or OCD, may also influence picky eating or food neophobia., among individuals with subclinical trait behaviours.'
'Parental practices are also important. Forcing a child to eat can exacerbate food rejection, and modelling by peers and parents may also play a positive or negative role.'
Is it common to have a child who is fussy with food?
'Using parents’ reports of children’s picky fussy eating between the ages of 24 and 65 months, the peak age for reporting symptoms was 38 months, with 3.5% reported as picky eaters at all (four) monitoring points, and 26% never reported as picky eaters. This shows picky fussy eating can be quite common among toddler and pre-schoolers.'
Is there a key age when children are most likely to become picky eaters?
'Picky fussy eating and food neophobia is believed to begin in toddlerhood, and peak at around five years of age as part of normal development. It is thought to be linked to the development of taste and contamination disgust which occurs between 20 months and six years.'
'However, as our research shows – it’s not just disgust that may underlie early childhood rejection behaviours, but also what the food looks like.'
'Indeed, for those children manifesting picky eating and food neophobia into late childhood and beyond, it is likely that sensory processes (taste and sight) are taking precedence over developing cognitive (reasoning) strategies.'
Do children grow out of it?
'Picky eating which does not remit within around two years is more likely to persist into adulthood, compared to transient shorter term pickiness. Research shows that while picky eating is common in pre-schoolers (around 14-50%), this reduces to between 7-27% in later childhood.
'In addition, whereas the new onset of symptoms has been estimated at 13% among pre-schoolers, this drops to 3% at the age of six.'
Are there influencing factors for children not eating their food?
'Exploring food images and textures of real foods with toddlers has been shown to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables.'
'However, research also shows that such educational interventions may provide only short term increase in healthy food consumption among older children.'